25 Etudes de Genre No.19 - Guitar
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In the transitional section example 21 , Llobet moves through the dominant of D major, but never resolves it. The point at which a resolution is expected breaks and moves instead to B. The dominant of this new area avoids resolution as well, and finally shifts, in measure thirty-eight, to g minor. The figuration is slowed down from sextuplets to quadruplets and the harmonic rhythm, quickens. The newly tonicized G in this section quickly establishes itself as a new dominant in measure thirty-nine example An ascending C major scale with a C passing tone in measure forty in the upper voice is heard against a descending c minor scale in the bass, strengthening the new tonal center while creating some ambiguity.
Here Llobet s priority seems to be creating movement through linear motion rather than harmonic progression. Nevertheless, harmonic progression is not abandoned, and in measure thirty-nine one finds a dominant in its four-two inversion moving through passing tones to a second inversion five to one. Measure forty begins with a passing C half diminished seventh, with no third, resolving to the dominant seventh, again with no third. From here to the end of the section Llobet goes about the business of strengthening B, first tonicizing it, and then setting it up as the dominant for the return of the A section.
In the process, he introduces a new motive, seen in example 23 in measures forty-three and forty-four, and measures forty-five and forty-six. It consists of nothing more than repeated ascending thirds and repeated ascending seconds. The articulations of these notes can be considered a defining part of the texture.
A coda follows, based on the sextuplet figuration of the A section and functioning as a dominant prolongation, and a final cadence is based on the B section motive heard in measures forty-three through forty-five. Prelude in E major Llobet's last known work, the Prelude in E major, was written in It is, without question, his most harmonically adventurous and perplexing work.
It is the only one of Llobet's works that could be considered "Impressionistic" with any degree of accuracy. The piece sounds "Impressionistic" to the ear, but if one sees the avoidance of harmonic functionality as an important feature, as Mueller and Palmer seem to, it may not fit the description. The piece begins with a paraphrase of the opening of the prelude from J.
Bach's Prelude, Fugue and Allegro. The autograph is "Prelude pour la Luth. Par J. Bach" and is in the key of E major. It is written on a double staff using a soprano clef and a bass clef. For convenience it is presented here in standard guitar notation, using a single staff with treble clef example Example Prelude in E, Llobet.
Structurally, the piece is nothing more than a harmonic progression based on a simple motivic figure in A-A' form. It begins on the tonic, to which it returns at midpoint, ultimately moving in the second half to a different area harmonically. The first measure of the Llobet prelude, written as chords in example 26, moves from the tonic triad through an augmented I chord with an added second, and then to the vi chord. As might be expected in Llobet's mature music, the augmented chord is more a result of voice leading than harmonic function, with the B moving through B to C , and the high G moving to F and back to G.
This moves again through an augmented one chord to the six, much as measure one did, but with the motivic material imitated at lower pitches. Measure four moves the tonal center toward G major, preparing for a sequence of the opening, now in that key area.
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An increase in chromaticism continues to destabilize the tonal center, arriving at the end of measure eight example 27 at an F dominant seventh with an added augmented fourth. This brings the piece to the dominant, which is prolonged from measure nine through measure sixteen at which point the piece cadences in the tonic. The first two measures are repeated verbatim in measures seventeen and eighteen, but in measure nineteen example 28 the tonic triad is revoiced, creating added tension by means of the substitution of an ascending melodic line.
From there the tonal center moves to C major in measure twenty-two, and to E major in measure twenty-three, which becomes an E diminished seventh.
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This moves to A augmented in measure twenty-four example 29 continuing to B with a suspended fourth, and finally cadencing in measure twenty-five. The remaining eight measures comprise a tonic-dominant prolongation. Interestingly, if one argues that the second half of measure twenty-four implies an F and this is probably supportable , then measures twenty-three through twenty-five may be seen to present a Schenkerian final descent from three to one. Since the first three measures of the piece present a Schenkerian descent from three to one, this piece may also be analyzed using a Schenkerian graph.
Summary Llobet's compositions begin with a backward look to Chopin. His Romanza was written in , forty-seven years after Chopin's death. He discovered, and eventually began to use, the harmonic language that he sought in the music of the composers with whom he interacted in his years in Paris, particularly Debussy, Ravel, and de Falla.
The question as to whether or not any of Llobet's compositions should be considered to be Impressionist is not easily answered. The majority should not be, but Respuesta and the Prelude in E major raise some questions. Respuesta has something of the Impressionist sound, and the prelude even more so, but both works are solidly grounded in harmonic functionality. There is never any real doubt as to what the key is or how the dominants will function. While much of Llobet's writing is influenced by that of Debussy, Ravel, and de Falla, it would be a mistake to label it "impressionist" music.
Although he employs some of the same devices found in the music of Debussy, Llobet still finds himself attached to the function of the dominant-tonic relationship. On the other hand, if one takes liberation of dissonance as its most salient feature, that is, if the dissonance need not be solely in service to harmonic function, then one could argue that Llobet's use of dissonance, in these two works, as a corollary of voice leading qualifies it. The question as to how to classify these two compositions need not be answered here, and indeed may not even be answerable in any definitive way.
What is important to this paper is that Llobet raised the bar for the scoring of the guitar and the use of what are called guitaristic effects. Example Berceuse d Orient, Tansman. Such techniques are found in the music of all composers who write for the guitar. Throughout the music of Villa-Lobos, the Preludes, Etudes, and Popular Brazilian Suite, one hears the clever manipulation of parallel hand figurations to create sonorities that are surprisingly new to the guitar. These harmonies are rich with the sound of the open fourths that comprise the guitar's tuning. It is likely that Villa-Lobos would have arrived at these sonorities with or without Llobet; Villa-Lobos played the guitar as a second instrument.
But it may be questioned as to whether Villa-Lobos would have created as large a body of guitar music had there been no important players to perform it. Also, although it was to be Segovia rather than Llobet who would ultimately personify Villa-Lobos' virtuoso-champion, Segovia's artistic and professional successes stood squarely on Llobet's shoulders. However, the common harmonic language of the previous generation of composers did not find its way into that of guitarists because no prominent figure emerged to lead the way. In his compositions Llobet was the first to demonstrate that the guitar was capable of expressing the complexities that composers had been employing in their works for other instruments since the mid-nineteenth century.
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In so doing, he opened the way for important composers who were not guitarists to write for the instrument. References Ardizzone, Matthew. Bach, Johann Sebastian. Frank Koonce. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Monaco: Edition Chanterelle, Debussy, Claude. Piano Music.
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New York: Dover Publications, Homenaje pour le Tombeau de Claude Debussy. Edited by Ronald Purcell. Heidelberg: Chanterelle Verlag, Llobet, Miguel. Revista Musical Catalana 7, no. Guitar Works, vol.