Governing Sustainable Cities

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Urban form and its impact on sustainable development. Energy Transitions in Bengaluru. Spatial Inequalities in Bengaluru. Transitioning Cities: the complex interactions between behaviour, transport flows and urban society.

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Transitioning Cities: the complex interactions between behaviour and transport flows. In Kisumu, street traders are in a precarious position.

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For example, the street traders who occupy the pavements of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Avenue the main street of Kisumu are constantly at risk of being relocated due to perceptions that they obstruct the pavements and negatively impact on formal businesses along the street. In the past two decades the number of supermarkets in Kisumu has grown to 20, many of them the anchor tenants of shopping malls.

This gap in infrastructure provision has partially been filled by the provision of services in particular areas by community groups and NGOs. As the formal water and sewerage network was limited to only the area of the former colonial town, in order to roll out water provision to peri-urban areas KIWASCO has relied upon a network of subcontractors who in turn sell water to connected customers and to water kiosk operators, the latter selling on to unconnected customers Schwarz and Sanga, Although this approach has been successful in extending the provision of water supply, the net result is a very uneven pattern of access to water, with the extent of piped, private connections and yard taps ranging from There are a number of informal waste pickers in Kisumu, who play an important role in the recycling of waste.

In general, urban transport infrastructure in African cities is inadequate. The net result is that many African cities are choked with traffic congestion. It is estimated that only about 30 per cent of the existing road network is being maintained. Many food-safety regulations need to be enforced at a national level, but at the city scale there needs to be local-level enforcement—for example, in the form of regular visits by health inspectors.

While regulating and enforcing food production, processing, distribution and retail in the formal sector can be relatively straightforward if there is sufficient capacity in place, addressing food safety in the informal sector is probably the main food-safety challenge faced at the local level Cambaza dos Muchangos et al. Numerous studies have confirmed that street food can have a high risk of contamination for example, Roesel and Grace, Typical issues include inadequate access to water and sanitation, inadequate refuse removal, and exposure to flies, which can all result in the contamination of food.

Even where local government does attempt to enforce health standards, this enforcement is often only partial. For example, in Abeokuta, Nigeria, food vendors are required to obtain an annual certificate from health authorities, but a survey found that only 31 per cent of vendors had these Omemu and Aderoju, The department runs a clinic for food handlers, carrying out screening and vaccinations for typhoid, hepatitis B and TB.

The governance of most issues is characterised by fragmentation and a lack of coordination between governance actors; in the case of government actors, the ability to enforce regulations is usually quite limited. Skills and resources seem to be more thinly spread and diffused than is the case than in the global North, meaning that one or two urban governance actors acting in isolation on their own are seldom able to address many key urban challenges.

As a result, key problems such as inadequate infrastructure in marketplaces, traffic congestion and inadequate waste disposal systems are not addressed, and the problems persist and grow over time. KAT initially only represented a narrow range of interests, but subsequently included broader representation—for example, of the informal traders in Kisumu Onyango and Obera, This was a conflict-ridden process, but resulted in the raising of substantial funds for an ambitious range of physical upgrading projects in Kisumu, such as the redevelopment of the marketplaces.

In this way, the limited skills and resources available for dealing with urban problems in a secondary city like Kisumu have been pooled together and used to leverage more resources, and different interests have been brought together to develop strategies that are more holistic, inclusive and sustainable. Although many governments are wary of making data accessible to the public World Bank, , this is an essential precondition for civil society and other stakeholders to engage with government bodies in collaborative governance.

Through establishing multi-stakeholder forums such as KAT and KLIP, and through ensuring that all stakeholders have access to information and relevant data, different interest groups can be brought together to successfully collaborate on planning for and managing cities, and more appropriate local strategies and projects can be developed and implemented. Collaborative governance can be messy and conflictual, but only through facilitating engagement and collaboration between different urban governance actors can urban challenges in Africa be effectively addressed.

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London: Palgrave Macmillan. Cambaza dos Muchangos, A. Roesel, C. McCrindle, H.

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