The Fourth Revolution: Transformations in American Society from the Sixties to the Present
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However, only a few societies have these offers, which are included in the competitions at the national turnfest every four years, as well. Americanization can be interpreted as acculturation and assimilation into American society. It occurs at political, cultural and religious levels. Demographic developments also play a role. But Americanization does not mean merely the abandonment, assimilation or weakening of ethnic identity and culture, rather it is also seen in the preservation, integration, and demonstration of specific traits of German culture, e.
Most of the Turner societies have been transformed into leisure sport and social societies for European-Americans that could also exist under a different name.
The members of the individual societies follow the same interests and goals which their society fulfils through its offers. These offers are adapted to the present members. Still the number of Turner societies and Turners has been diminishing since the s. Many of the former Germany-American Turner societies have developed into multi-ethnic societies, with mostly members from different European immigrant groups.
The pressure of American society to Americanize the Turner movement was stronger than the influence the Turners had on American society.
The Fourth Revolution : Transformations in American Society from the Sixties to the Present
This can be seen, on the one hand, by their bondage to certain traditions and Turner symbols of German heritage and identity and on the other hand, in their adoption of American values and adaptation to American society. The Turnvereine adapted to the new circumstances; they were transformed. However, it should not be forgotten that the ancestors of the Americans with a Germans past, who in the s were the biggest ethnic group in the United States, have contributed to the building of an American culture, and an American Nation, although the traces are hardly noticeable today.
The Turners have become a minority group in the American world of sport. The transformation and Americanization of the Turner societies resulted in their invisibility, and their future is uncertain. Sources estimate that no more than persons emigrated for purely politically reasons between and see Rehe, , p. See Metzner , p.
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Starkloff of St. Louis, chairman of the executive committee of the Turner union, expressed the desire of the Turnersto find a new field of involvement: "How would it be if we should work with all our might to introduce physical training into the public schools of this country? We could not conceive of a more beautiful gift than this to bestow upon the American people. He also states that this was the second institution in the United States in which one could become a physical education teacher. The membership number seems to be stable.
Unpublished information and numbers of the AT. However, the article stated that it should not replace gymnastics. Lately itwas performed at the sesquicentennial celebrations of the Cincinnati Central Turners , which were connected with the 67th national convention of the AT in August. Adams WP.
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The German Americans: an ethnic experience. Amerikanischer Turnerbund. Revidierte Festordnung. Barney RK. Can J Hist Sports ; The German-American Turnverein movement: its histori-ography. In: Naul R, editor. Turnen und Sport. Conzen KN. Patterns of German-American history. In: Miller R, editor. Germans in America: retrospect and prospect. Tricentennial Lectures delivered at the German Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia: German Society of Pennsylvania; Ethnicity as festive culture: nineteenth-century Ger-man Americans on parade.
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New York: Oxford Press; Cunz D. They came from Germany. New York; Doerries RP. Iren und Deutsche in der neuen Welt. Akkultura-tionsprozesse in der amerikanischen Gesellschaft im spaten neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag; Geldbach E. In: Stadion; Gleason P. American identity and Americanization. In: Thernstrom S, editor. Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups.
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Research guide to the turner movement in the United States.tabmebuttlich.tk
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Through thousands of years of development, the human race discovered math knowledge sequentially: from numbers to arithmetic to algebra to calculus, etc. Although calculus is in today's first-year college textbooks, every generation of children must still repeat humanity's evolutionary process to learn math. They do not jump to calculus at age 6; instead they start with learning numbers with the help of their fingers, just like our ancestors did and gradually move up the ladder.
In contrast, modern economic theories teach poor countries to leap forward, to start industrialization by building advanced capital-intensive industries such as chemical, steel and automobile industries , by setting up modern financial systems such as a floating exchange rate, free international capital flows, and fully fledged privatization of state-owned properties and natural resources or by erecting modern political institutions such as democracy and universal suffrage.
But such top-down approaches violate the historical sequence of the Industrial Revolution and have led to political chaos, developmental disorders and deformed capitalism in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. As China has industrialized, it has picked up not only the positives of Western development but the negatives, including rampant corruption and organized crime, unprecedented pollution and environmental destruction, rising divorce and suicide rates, widespread business fraud and scandals, markets full of "lemons" and low-quality goods, pervasive asset bubbles, rising income inequality and class discrimination, frequent industrial accidents, etc.
And there are other challenges, including building social safety nets, finishing social and economic reforms in the health care and education sectors, finishing rural urbanization and agricultural modernization, establishing modern financial infrastructure and regulatory institutions as in the U. However, as long as China follows the right sequence of economic development, these problems should be merely growing pains and not the same daunting structural obstacles like the Malthusian poverty trap or the middle-income trap faced by many developing nations in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.
Ever since the 15th century, the spirit of capitalism has been "shake hands and do business," regardless of ideology, religion, culture and national boundary.