The Fourth Revolution: Transformations in American Society from the Sixties to the Present

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However, only a few societies have these offers, which are included in the competitions at the national turnfest every four years, as well. Americanization can be interpreted as acculturation and assimilation into American society. It occurs at political, cultural and religious levels. Demographic developments also play a role. But Americanization does not mean merely the abandonment, assimilation or weakening of ethnic identity and culture, rather it is also seen in the preservation, integration, and demonstration of specific traits of German culture, e.

Most of the Turner societies have been transformed into leisure sport and social societies for European-Americans that could also exist under a different name.

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The members of the individual societies follow the same interests and goals which their society fulfils through its offers. These offers are adapted to the present members. Still the number of Turner societies and Turners has been diminishing since the s. Many of the former Germany-American Turner societies have developed into multi-ethnic societies, with mostly members from different European immigrant groups.

The pressure of American society to Americanize the Turner movement was stronger than the influence the Turners had on American society.

The Fourth Revolution : Transformations in American Society from the Sixties to the Present

This can be seen, on the one hand, by their bondage to certain traditions and Turner symbols of German heritage and identity and on the other hand, in their adoption of American values and adaptation to American society. The Turnvereine adapted to the new circumstances; they were transformed. However, it should not be forgotten that the ancestors of the Americans with a Germans past, who in the s were the biggest ethnic group in the United States, have contributed to the building of an American culture, and an American Nation, although the traces are hardly noticeable today.

The Turners have become a minority group in the American world of sport. The transformation and Americanization of the Turner societies resulted in their invisibility, and their future is uncertain. Sources estimate that no more than persons emigrated for purely politically reasons between and see Rehe, , p. See Metzner , p.

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Starkloff of St. Louis, chairman of the executive committee of the Turner union, expressed the desire of the Turnersto find a new field of involvement: "How would it be if we should work with all our might to introduce physical training into the public schools of this country? We could not conceive of a more beautiful gift than this to bestow upon the American people. He also states that this was the second institution in the United States in which one could become a physical education teacher. The membership number seems to be stable.

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Unpublished information and numbers of the AT. However, the article stated that it should not replace gymnastics. Lately itwas performed at the sesquicentennial celebrations of the Cincinnati Central Turners , which were connected with the 67th national convention of the AT in August. Adams WP.

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The German Americans: an ethnic experience. Amerikanischer Turnerbund. Revidierte Festordnung. Barney RK. Can J Hist Sports ; The German-American Turnverein movement: its histori-ography. In: Naul R, editor. Turnen und Sport. Conzen KN. Patterns of German-American history. In: Miller R, editor. Germans in America: retrospect and prospect. Tricentennial Lectures delivered at the German Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia: German Society of Pennsylvania; Ethnicity as festive culture: nineteenth-century Ger-man Americans on parade.

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  • Amerikanische Wald- und Strombilder. Erster, mit annotation (German Edition)?
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    Research guide to the turner movement in the United States.

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